Well as CFD stands for Contract for difference, so you are not really buying or selling the actual instrument. CFD is a derivative financial instrument, which allows trading on indices, stocks, commodities, bonds and other instruments, without the need of actual possession. In my opinion the main advantage of CFD’s against trading with real financial instruments is that you can speculate with the price of the stocks of worldwide companies. So when you trade with CFD’s you will not pay the whole amount of the index/stock or etc. you will pay a very small part of it. The process of placing an order on these instruments is exactly the same as FX.
As for Binary Options I don't have a particular experience with them but I think you could find the description in Investopedia quite useful: https://www.investopedia.com/articles/optioninvestor/10/binary-options.asp