Drawing HL HH, LH LL

I have some questions about HH, HL, LH and LL. I find them very hard to understand.

Why at the red circle it isn’t a HH? I don’t really get that.

At the first red circle, why it isn’t a LL and LH? Its low and then goes high?
The second circle, the 3 black circles, I don’t get why they aren’t confirmed?

I don’t get the part of ‘confirming’ and why sometimes they aren’t valid.

Authors sometimes skip some detail so they can paint a clearer picture.

It can be useful to use a few rules to define your own swing highs and lows, e.g. a swing high can only occur after at least 3 consecutive bars with higher daily lows and highs.